Stage 4 – Geologic CO2 Sequestration

Geologic Sequestration

Strata Rocks Stage 4

Injection of CO2 into underground rocks is not a new concept, as the oil and gas industry has been successfully doing this since 1971 for Enhanced Oil Recovery operations or EOR. The difference between EOR and Geologic CO2 Sequestration is that the sequestered CO2 is permanently confined in the rocks, while EOR is an injection and recovery process. Sequestering CO2 in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs is rapidly gaining worldwide acceptance as the most viable means for locking CO2 out of the atmosphere.

Determining the proper rock formations for injection requires a multi-disciplinary analysis that includes both geoscientists and engineers. A suitable well site will include, not only, an injection zone to handle the volume of CO2 needed to sequester, but a competent seal formation(s) or sealing system to prevent the stored CO2 from migrating into fresh water sources.

Carbon Sequestration Chart

EPA Issues Final Geologic Carbon Sequestration Regulations
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Permitting for Geologic CO2 Sequestration wells require significant engineering and geologic reviews. These reviews include evaluations of local hydrology, seismic activity, faulting, municipal water sources, surface environmental impacts and subsurface geology. The resulting analyses are paramount to the permitting process that is submitted to the Environmental Protection and State Agencies for final drilling authorization.